PF-2 FLUORIDE & ARSENIC EDUCTION FILTER
The PF-2 fluoride & arsenic reduction filter (set of 2) work in conjunction with the Black Berkey® purification elements as they fit onto the end of the Black Berkey® elements while sitting in the lower chamber of a gravity filter unit as shown. They will fit into all of the Berkey systems EXCEPT the Go Berkey Kit.
- Constructed of: Non-leaching Polypropylene #5 that is BPA-Free plastic
- Includes: Set of 2
- Use with Berkey Systems: Travel, Big, Royal, Imperial, Crown and Berkey Light
- Used with: PF-2 Fluoride and Arsenic reduction Filters are designed to be used in conjunction with the Black Berkey® Purification Elements only
- Where PF-2 goes: Attach to the bottom of the Black Berkey® Elements and sit in the lower chamber of the Berkey unit
- Number of PF-2s in the bottom chamber must match the number of Black Berkey® Purification Elements in the top chamber; for example, 4 Black Berkey® Purification elements would require 4 PF-2 Filters
- Filter Capacity: 3,785 litres per set of two under normal usage. Note that high levels of Fluoride, arsenic and heavy metals can reduce the capacity and efficiency of the elements.
These FILTER and REDUCE as follows (with Black Berkey® Purification elements):
- Arsenic V and per-oxidized Arsenic III
- (Targets entire family of arsenic oxide anions as well as the arsenic cations)
- Other residual heavy metal ions
- Do not boil element
- Total filtration flow rate reduced by 15-20% due to added water purification
Technical Information and Testing
Testing for fluoride was based on 20-30ppm of the ion in the in fluent aqueous solution at a flow rate of no more than 3 gpm (11 lpm) per cubic foot of media. Results of < 1ppm of the fluoride ion in the effluent were typical for the media (>95% reduction). Under optimum conditions, effluent concentrations of less than 50 ppb were readily achieved (>99.75% reduction). This product uniquely targets the entire family of arsenic oxide anions as well as the arsenic cations.
Our original tests were done using gravity alone to purge the PF-2 filters. Since then, we have added a step by using purging buttons which are much more efficient at removing any residual process dust from the PF-2 media. The test does not distinguish between activated alumina (Al2O3) and Aluminum (Al). So we had to use the total count of aluminum and activated alumina in our tests.
PF-2 filters contain high-grade activated alumina (Al2O3), which currently is the most efficient media available for extracting fluoride from water. Activated alumina is inert. Below are the results we obtained when testing the PF-2 filters (the water was not per-filtered through the Black Berkey® filter elements). The reduction over time is due to additional residual process dust being washed free from the PF-2 filter as the system is used. To give a scale for comparison purposes we include test results from a national brand toothpaste and water boiled in an aluminum pan.
- National brand toothpaste 52.878 ppm aluminum
- Water boiled in an aluminum pan for five minutes: 2.791 ppm aluminum
- PF2 after conditioning (5 cycles): .178 ppm aluminum
- PF2 after 10 Cycles: .037 ppm aluminum
- PF2 after 20 Cycles: .029 ppm aluminum
While the above results indicate that the residual process dust adds a minute amount of activated alumina to the water, the Black Berkey® water filters reduce aluminum from the water. We tested water that naturally contained .320ppm aluminum and filtered it through the combination of the Black Berkey® and the post conditioned PF-2 filtration elements (5 cycles). The results showed a net reduction in aluminum contamination (Raw in fluent: .320ppm – Effluent after passing through the Black Berkey® and PF-2 elements: .232ppm). Again, the standard tests cannot distinguish between aluminum (Al) and activated alumina (Al2O3), which is inert. Nevertheless, the tests showed a net reduction by the Black Berkey® filter element in the combination of naturally occurring aluminum plus any residual activated alumina (Al2O3) process dust from the PF-2 elements.
In other words the Black Berkey® elements removed more aluminum from the water than was added by the PF-2 elements.
Under normal conditions we recommend that each set of two PF-2 filters be replaced after approx. 3,785 litres. For instance the Royal Berkey system is about 12.3 litres, therefore the PF-2 filters should be replaced after (3,785/12.3) or 307 refills. If the system is refilled about one time per day, the PF-2s should be replaced after 10 months, if the system is refilled about twice per day, the PF-2s should be replaced about every five months. Actual capacity is dependent on the presence of other competing contaminants in the source water. High levels of fluoride, arsenic and heavy metals may reduce the capacity and efficiency of the elements.
Priming the PF-2 Water Filter
(Attention: PF-2 filters must be primed before use.)
- With blue caps in place, wash the exterior of each PF-2 water filter with a mild dish soap.
- With clean hands, remove both blue caps from each end of the PF-2 water filter.
- Place the rubber-priming button (tan coloured) onto one end of the PF-2 water filter and align the hole in the button with the hole in the PF-2 water filter.
- Press the priming button up against a sink faucet so that the priming button creates a seal between the faucet and the PF-2 filter.
- While holding the priming button against the faucet, turn on the cold water gently and allow the water to fill the cavity of the PF-2 water filter and discharge from the opposite end. Allow the water to discharge for at least 20 seconds or until the water runs clear, whichever is longer. Hint: Place your thumb on top of the faucet to apply pressure creating a tighter seal.
- Now repeat the process by turning the PF-2 water filter over and priming the filter from the opposite end in the same manner.
- Prime each additional PF-2 filter repeating steps 3-6.